Leading Curriculum Change in Higher Education in Botswana: Issues and Challenges for Academic Middle Managers
This exploratory study examined issues and challenges for academic middle managers (AMMs) in the leading of curriculum change in higher education institutions HEIs. The premise of this study was that leadership tasks that involve motivating and inspiring subordinates instead of coercing them are the most effective way of getting the best results from subordinates during the process of curriculum change. The study therefore sought to answer the question: How do AMMs lead curriculum change in HEIs in Botswana? 162 AMMs were selected using the stratified random sampling procedure from a total of 280 AMMs from the five HEIs. A mixed methods approach that employed a concurrent triangulation design was used. The study also used a structured questionnaire and a semi-structure interview for data collection. Quantitative data was analysed using means and standard deviation. Responses of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral (N), Disagree (DA) and Strongly Disagree (SDA) were weighted as 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1. The sum of the weights were divided by 5 to get a criterion mean of 3 so that responses with mean scores of less than 3 were not accepted and those with mean scores of 3 and above were accepted as representing marginal to very good performance in leading curriculum change. Thematic analysis was used for analysing qualitative data. Results of this study showed that the use of more participative leadership styles such as distributed leadership is crucial to successful planning and implementation of curriculum change in HEIs by academic middle managers.