Scale for Advertising Effectiveness: A Study on Traditional and Interactive Advertisements as per the Lavidge and Steiner Model

Ravi Kumar .

Abstract


The research study critically evaluates the advertising effectiveness model developed by Lavidge and Steiner. The model focuses on three stages- cognition, affection and change in behavior. After understanding all the individual three stages, a 44 item scale was constructed for the pilot study. The respondents were shown select traditional and interactive advertisements of consumer durables. The analytical tools used for the research study were cronback alpha, item to total correlation, t-test and exploratory factor analysis.

After examination of scale by subject experts, the scale is reduced to twenty eight items for final study. The scale contains attributes for cognition, affection and behavior. The pilot study was conducted on a sample of 100 respondents, while the final study was conducted on a sample of 320 respondents.

The empirically tested scale has desirable values in terms of validity and reliability; the scale can be used for further research studies by academicians and industry researchers to evaluate effectiveness of both traditional and interactive advertisements.

Keywords


Advertising effectiveness, traditional advertising, interactive advertising, advertising scale and advertising.

Full Text:

PDF

References


A, B.-A., B, C., & Lacobucci, D. (1998). New media interactive advertising vs. traditional advertising. Journal of Adverting Research, 38(4), 23-32.

Adetunji, R., Nordin, S., & Noor, S. (2014). The Effectiveness of Integrated Advertisement Message Strategy in Developing Audience-Based Brand Equity. Global Business and Management Research: An international journal, 6(4).

Baker, M. J., & Gilbert, A. C. (1977). The Impact of Physically Attractive Models on Advertising Evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 538-555.

Barry, T. E. (1987). The development of the hierarchy of effects: An historical perspective. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 251-295.

Barry, T. E., & Howard, D. J. (1990). A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 9, 121-135.

Churchill, G. (1979). A Paradigm forDeveloping Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, XVI, 64-73.

Colley, R. H. (1961). Defining advertising goals for measuring advertisng results. New York: Association of National Advertisers.

Dickinger, A., & Zorn, S. (2008). Compensation models for interactive advertising. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 14(4), 557-565.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Andersen, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River. NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hardesty, M., D., Carlson, J. P., & William, O. B. (2002). Brand Familiarity and Invoice Price Effects on Consumer Evaluations: The Moderating Role of Skepticism Toward Advertising. Journal of Advertising, 31(2), 1-15.

Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (1996). Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: Conceptual foundations. J. Mark., 60, 50-68. Retrieved 08 16, 2017, from http://brosephstalin.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/ad_format_print.pdf

Jain, Shailendra, P., & Steven, S. P. (2004). Valenced Comparisons. Journal of Marketing Research, 41(1), 46-58.

Kelley, S. W., & Turley, L. W. (2004). The effect of content on perceived affect of Super Bowl commercials. Journal of Sports Management, 18, 398-420.

Lavidge, R. C., & Steiner, G. A. (1961). A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 25(4), 59-62.

Lazarus, R. (1982). Thoughts on the relations between emotion and cognition. American Psychology, 37, 1019-1024.

Lazarus, R. (1984). On the primary of cognition. American Psychology, 39, 117-123.

Malhotra, K. N. (2005). Measurement and Scaling: Non - Comparative Scaling Techniques. In Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation- Fourth Edition (pp. 254-277). Pearson Education.

Marshall, S. (2006). Advertising Message Strategies and Executional Devices In Television Commercials From Award-Winning “Effective” Campaigns From 1999 to 2004. In Doctor of Philosophy. University of Florida.

Obermiller, C., & Spangenberg, E. R. (1998). Development of a Scale to Measure Consumer Skepticism Toward Advertising. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7(2), 159-186.

Pallant, J. (2003). A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Pelsmacker, D., Patrick, Geuens, M., & Anckaert, P. (2002). Media Context and Advertising Effectiveness: The Role of Context Appreciation and Context/Ad Similarity. Journal of Advertising, 49-61.

Pramataris, K. C. (2001). Personal interactive TV advertising: The imedia business model. Elect. Mark., 11(1), 17-25.

Shrum, L. J., Lowrey, T. M., & Liu, Y. (2009). Emerging Issues in Advertising Research. The SAGE Handbook of Media Processes and Effects, 299-312.

Simpson, M., P., Horton, S., & Brown, G. (1996). Male Nudity in Advertisements: A Modified Replication and Extension of Gender and Product Effects. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24 Summer, 257-262.

Tsai, C. H., & Tsai, M. (2006). The impact of message framing and involvement on advertising effectiveness: The topic of oral hygiene as an example. Journal of American Academy of Business, 8(2), 222-226.

Watts, M. (1983). Concepts, Misconceptions and Alternative Conceptions: Changing Perspectives in Science Education. Studies in Science Education, 10, 61-98.

Yang, C. C. (1996). Interactive Advertising and its Effectiveness: An Exploratory Study. Advertising Research, 8, 27-65.

Zajonc, R. B., & Markus, H. (1982). Affective and cognitive factors of preferences. Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 121-130.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Editorial Office:

Educational Research Multimedia & Publications,
S.N. 21, Plot No 24, Mirza Ghalib Road Malegaon Nasik,
Maharashtra India - 423203.
+919764558895 (whatsapp),
editor@scholarshub.net, www.scholarshub.net

Copyrights © 2010-2020 - ERM Publications, India     

This work is licensed under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/