Predictors and Characterisation of Mall Shoppers in A Typical Sub – Saharan African Context: Evidence from Nigeria

Idoko, Edwin Chukwuemeka ., Nkamnebe, Dominic. Anayo ., Okoye, Victor Ifesinachi .

Abstract


Shopping malls are consistently reconfiguring the retailing ecology in Nigeria, just like in some other countries in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), which arguably is affecting the socio-psychology of shoppers. Despite the amazing changes, not much is known about the dynamics operating in terms of predictors and characterisation of shoppers migrating to the new shopping experience. Using this as a point of departure, this paper explores those factors that characterise those who patronise shopping malls among the emerging mall shopping segment in Nigeria. Five hundred and twenty mall shoppers were intercepted and surveyed at the regional Polo Park Shopping Mall in Enugu, Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster discriminant analyses were performed on data collected for the study, whereas structural equation modelling technique was utilised to perform confirmatory factor analysis. Findings clearly identified aesthetic and architectural design, escapism, socio-personality transformation, safety, role enactment, quality products, price consciousness, and presence of reputable global retail stores as key predictors of mall shopping. Multiple discriminant analysis shows that aesthetics and architectural design is the most important factor that distinguishes the segment, followed by escapism, and presence of reputable global retail stores. Marketing management and theory implications of the findings were argued.


Keywords


Predictors, Mall shopping, Consumer behaviour, Nigeria, Africa

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed, Z.U., Ghingold, M., Dahari, Z. (2007). Malaysian shopping mall behaviour: an exploratory study. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 19 (4), 331-348.

Allard, T., Babin, B.I., Chebat, J.C. (2009). When income matters: customer evaluation of shopping mall’s hedonic and utilitarian orientations. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.16, 40-49.

Al-Mahy, J.A.M. (2013). The modern retail habitats in the Gulf Region: the experience of the Bahraini shopper. International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 8 (13), 161-174.

Anic, I.D., Vouk, R. (2005). Exploring the relationships between store patronage motives and purchasing outcomes for major shopping trip in the Croatian grocery retailing. Ekonomski Pregled, Vol. 56 (9), 634-657.

Ann, M.F., Jihyun, K. (2007). An integrative framework capturing experiential and utilitarian shopping experience. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 35 (6), 421-442.

Anning-Dorson, T., Kastner, A., Mahmoud, M. A. (2013). Investigation into mall visitation and demographic idiosyncrasies in Ghana. Management Science Letters, Vol. 3, 1-18, doi 10.5267/j.msl.2012.12.020.

Anselmsson, J. (2006). Sources of customer satisfaction with shopping malls. a comparative study of different customer segments. Int.Rev. of Retail, Distribution, and Consumer Research, Vol. 16 (1), 115-138.

Arnold, M.J., Reynolds, K.E. (2003). Hedonic shopping motivation. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 108 (.2), 1-20.

Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Bellenger, D N., Robertson, D.H., Greenberg, B.A. (1977). Shopping centre motives. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 53 (2), 29-38.

Beynon, M.J. (2010). Gender differences in supermarket choice: an expositional analysis in the presence of ignorance using CaRBS. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 44 (1/2), 267-290.

Bloch, P.H., Ridgway, N.M., and Dawson, S.A. (1994). The consumer mall as shopping habitat. Journal of Retailing, 23-42.

Byoungho, J., Jai-Ok, K. (2003). A typology of Korean discount shoppers: Shopping motives, store attributes, and outcomes. International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 14 (3/4), 396-419.

Carpenter, J.M. (2008). Demographics and patronage motives of supercenter shoppers in the United States. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 36 (1),5-16.

Chang, H., Fang, W. (2012). The effect of shopping value on retail outcomes: a comparison between department stores and hypermarkets. The Services Industries Journal, Vol. 32 (4), 22-49.

Che-Aniza, C.W., Siti, R.H., Nor, A.O., Sallehuddin, M.N. (2012). Important determinants of consumers’ retail selection decision in Malaysia. World Review of Business Research, Vol. 2 (2), 164-175.

Dawson, J.A. (1994). The internationalization of retailing operations. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 10(3), 267-282.

De Juan, M.D., 2004. Why do people choose the shopping malls? The attraction theory revisited: the Spanish case. Journal of International Consumer Behaviour, Vol. 17 (1).

Deepika, J., Ravi, K. (2012). Trendy shopping replacing traditional format preferences. African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 6 (11), 4196-4207.

Farrag, D.A., El-Sayed, I.M., Belk, R.W. (2010). Mall shopping motives and activities: a multimethod approach. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 (2), 95-115.

Gates, R., Solomon, P.J. (1982). Research using the mall intercept: state of the art. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 22 (4), 43-49.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, E., Orozco-Gomez, M. (2012). A segmentation study of Mexican consumers based on shopping centre attractiveness. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 40 (10), 759-777.

Goyat, S. (2011). The basis of market segmentation: a critical review of literature. European Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3 (9).

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Harvinder, S., Vinita, S. (2012). Determinants of shopping experience: exploring the mall shoppers of National Capital Region (NCR) of India. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 40 (3), 235-248.

Hasliza, H., Muhammad, S.R. (2012). Extended shopping experiences in hypermarket. Asian Social Sciences, Vol. 8 (11), 138-144.

Haytko, D.L., Baker, J. (2004). It’s all at the mall: exploring adolescent girls’ experiences. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 8 (1), 67-83.

Hodder, B.W., Ukwu, U.I. (1969). Markets in West Africa. Ibadan: University Press.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., Mullen, M.R. (2008). Structural equation modeling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Vol. 6 (1), 53-60.

Huczynski, A.A., Buchanan, 2010. Organisational Behaviour.London: FT.

International Council of Shopping Centre (2004). Shopping centre definitions: basic configurations and types for the United States. http:// www.icsc.org. Retrieved February 12, 2015).

Jamal, A., Fiona, D., Chudry, F., Al-Marri, M. (2006). Profiling consumers: a study of Qatari consumers shopping motivations. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 13, 67-80.

Jones, M., Reynolds, K.E. (2006). The role of retailer interest on shopping behaviour. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 82 (2), 115-126.

Jones, M., Kristy, E.R., Mark, J.A. (2006). Hedonic and Utilitarian shopping value; investigating differential effects on retail outcomes. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 59, 974-981.

Kok, W.K., Fon, S.O. (2014). Shopper perception and loyalty: a stochastic approach to modeling shopping mall behaviour. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 42 (7), 626-642.

Kotler, P., Armstrong, G. (2006). Principles of Marketing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P. and Keller, K.L. (2006), Marketing management 12th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Ltd.

Kristina, B. (2011). Shopping as leisure: an exploration of manifoldness and dynamics in consumer shopping experience. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 18, 200-209.

Kuruvilla, S.J., Joshi, N., Shah, N. (2009). Do men and women really shop differently? an exploration of gender differences in mall shopping in India. International Journal of Consumer Services, Vol. 33 (6), 715-23.

LeHew, M., Burgess, B., Wesley, C. (2002). Expanding the loyalty concept to include preference for a shopping mall. International Review of Retail, Distribution & Consumer Research, Vol. 12 (3), 225-36.

LeHew, M.L.A., Wesley, S.C. (2007). Tourist shoppers’ satisfaction with regional shopping mall experiences. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol.1 (1), 88-96.

Levy, M., Weitz, B.A. (2007). Retailing Management. Boston MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Manana, Z. (2009). Antecedents of store patronage and cross-shopping: the case of increasing grocery spend in Soweto. Gordon Institute of Business Science, 1-102.

Massicotte, M.C., Michon, R., Chebat, J.C., Sirgy, M.J. (2009). Effects of mall atmosphere on mall evaluation: teenage versus adult shoppers. http://www.ryerson.ca/rmichon/publications/massicotte_Michon_Chebat_Sirgy.pdf. Retrieved June 15, 2015.

Michon, R., Yu, H., Smith, D., Chebat, J-C. (2008). The influence of mall environment on female fashion shoppers’ value and behaviour. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 12 (4), 456-68.

Nigerian Population Commission (2006). Report on the census 2006 final results.

Nkamnebe, A.D. (2014). Africa’s retailing environment: the online shopping perspective”, in S.N.Nwankwo and K.I.N.Ibeh (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Business in Africa (pp.70-86). New York: Routledge.

Norusis, M. (2008). SPSS 16.0 Advanced Statistical Procedure. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Companion Prentice Hall,.

Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pan, Y., Zinkhan, G.W. (2006). Determinants of retail patronage: a meta analytical perspective. Journal of Retailing, Vol.82 (3), 229-243.

Premkanth, P. (2012). Market segmentation and its impact on customer satisfaction with especial reference to commercial bank of Ceylon Plc. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, Vol. 12 (17).

Puccinelli, A.M., Goodstein, R.C., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., Stewart, D. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: understanding the buying process. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 85, 15-30.

Ratneshwar, S., David, M., Cythia, H. (2000). The why of consumption, contemporary perspectives on consumer motives, goals and desires. New York: Routledge.

Reutterer, T., Teller, C. (2009). Store format choice and shopping trip types. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 37 (8), 695-710.

Robert, M. G. (2006). Nonresponse rates and response bias in household surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 70 (5), 646-675.

Ruiz, J., Chebat, J., Hansen, P. (2004). Another trip to the mall: a segmentation study of customers based on their activities. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 11(6), 333-350.

Schiffman, L.G., Kanuk, L.L. (2010). Consumer Behaviour 10th ed. New York: Pearson.

Severin, V., Louviere, J.J., Finn, A. (2001). The stability of retail shopping choices over time and across countries. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 77 (2), 185-202.

Sit, J., Merrilees, B., Birch, D. (2003). Entertainment-seeking shopping centre patrons: the missing segments. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 31 (2), 80-94. DOI10.1108/09590550310461985.

Stone, G.P. (1954). City shoppers and urban identification: observations on the social psychology of city life. American Journal of Sociology, 36-45.

Tauber, E.M. (1972). Why do people shop? Journal of Marketing Management 36, 46-49.

Teller, C., Reutterer, T., Schnedlitz, P. (2008). Hedonic and utilitarian shopper types in evolved and created retail agglomeration. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol. 18 (3), 283-309.

Terblanche, N.S. (1999). The perceived benefits derived from visits to a super-regional shopping centre: an exploratory study. South African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 30 (4), 141-146.

Vanessa, J., Leslie, S., Aquia, B. (2011). Mall attributes and shopping value: Differences by gender and generational cohort. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 18, 1-9.

Varman, R., Belk, R.W. (2012). Consuming postcolonial shopping malls. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 28 (1-2), 62-84.

Westbrook, R., Black, W.C. (1985). A motivation-based shopper typology. Journal of Retailing, Vol.61, 78-103.

Woodruffe-Burton, H., Eccles, S., Elloit, R. (2002). Towards a theory of shopping: a holistic framework. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol. 1 (3), 256-66.

Zhang, Y. (2011). The influence of the mall environment on shoppers’ values and consumer behaviour in China. ASBBS Annual Conference; Las Vegas, Vol. 18 (1).

Zhou, K., Li, C. (2010). How strategic orientations influence the building of dynamic capability in emerging economies. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 63 (3).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Editorial Office:

Educational Research Multimedia & Publications,
S.N. 21, Plot No 24, Mirza Ghalib Road Malegaon Nasik,
Maharashtra India - 423203.
+919764558895 (whatsapp),
editor@scholarshub.net, www.scholarshub.net

Copyrights © 2010-2020 - ERM Publications, India     

This work is licensed under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/