Scale for Advertising Effectiveness: A Study on Traditional and Interactive Advertisements as per the Lavidge and Steiner Model

Ravi Kumar .


The research study critically evaluates the advertising effectiveness model developed by Lavidge and Steiner. The model focuses on three stages- cognition, affection and change in behavior. After understanding all the individual three stages, a 44 item scale was constructed for the pilot study. The respondents were shown select traditional and interactive advertisements of consumer durables. The analytical tools used for the research study were cronback alpha, item to total correlation, t-test and exploratory factor analysis.

After examination of scale by subject experts, the scale is reduced to twenty eight items for final study. The scale contains attributes for cognition, affection and behavior. The pilot study was conducted on a sample of 100 respondents, while the final study was conducted on a sample of 320 respondents.

The empirically tested scale has desirable values in terms of validity and reliability; the scale can be used for further research studies by academicians and industry researchers to evaluate effectiveness of both traditional and interactive advertisements.


Advertising effectiveness, traditional advertising, interactive advertising, advertising scale and advertising.

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